Gary Gereffi

Gary Gereffi

Professor Emeritus of Sociology

External address: 
264 Soc-Psych, Durham, NC 27708
Internal office address: 
Duke Box 90088, Durham, NC 27708-0088
(919) 660-5611


Gary Gereffi is Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Director of the Global Value Chains Center at Duke University (  He has published over a dozen books and numerous articles on globalization, industrial upgrading, and social and economic development, and he is one of the originators of the global value chains framework.  His most recent books are:  Handbook on Global Value Chains (co-edited by Stefano Ponte, Gary Gereffi and Gale Raj-Reichert), Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. 2019); and Global Value Chains and Development: Redefining the Contours of 21st Century Capitalism (Cambridge University Press, 2018).  Current projects include:  (1) the impact of U.S. protectionism on jobs and regional trade agreements; (2) evaluating how the digital economy and Industry 4.0 are likely to affect international business strategies and industrial upgrading; and (3) shifting regional interdependencies in East Asia and North America, with a focus on China, South Korea and Mexico vis-à-vis the United States.

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Yale University 1980

Appelbaum, R. P., and G. Gereffi. “Power and Profits in the Apparel Commodity Chain.” In Global Production: The Apparel Industry in the Pacific Rim, edited by E. Bonacich, L. Cheng, N. Chinchilla, N. Hamilton, and P. Ong, 42–62. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1994.

Cheng, L., and G. Gereffi. “U.S. Retailers and Asian Garment Production.” In Global Production: The Apparel Industry in the Pacific Rim, edited by E. Bonacich, L. Cheng, N. Chinchilla, N. Hamilton, and P. Ong, 63–79, 1994.

Gereffi, G., and M. -. L. Pan. “The Globalization of Taiwan’s Garment Industry.” In Global Production, edited by E. Bonacich, L. Cheng, N. Chinchilla, N. Hamilton, and P. Ong, 126–46. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1994.

Gereffi, G. “International Subcontracting and Global Capitalism: Reshaping the Pacific Rim.” In Pacific-Asia and the Future of the World-System, edited by Ravi Arvind Palat, 67–81. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Gereffi, Gary, and Lu-Lin Cheng. “The Role of Informality in East Asian Development, with Implications for Mexico.” In Work Without Protections: Case Studies of the Informal Sector in Developing Countries, edited by Gregory K. Schoepfle and Jorge F. Perez-Lopez, 177–214. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 1993.

Gereffi, G. “Mexico’s Maquiladora Industries and North American Integration.” In North America Without Borders? Integrating Canada, the United States, and Mexico, edited by Stephen J. Randall, 135–51. Calgary, Canada: University of Calgary Press, 1992.

Gereffi, G. “Recasting Development Theory in Latin America and East Asia.” In The University of Hong Kong, Social Sciences Research Center, Occasional Paper Series, Paper No. 6, 1992.

Gereffi, G. “New Realities of Industrial Development in East Asia and Latin America: Global, Regional, and National Trends.” In States and Development in the Asian Pacific Rim, edited by Richard P. Appelbaum and Jeffrey Henderson, 85–112. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1992.

Gereffi, G. “Paths of Industrialization: An Overview.” In Manufacturing Miracles: Paths of Industrialization in Latin America and East Asia, edited by Gary Gereffi and Donald L. Wyman, 3–31. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Gereffi, G. “Big Business and the State.” In Manufacturing Miracles: Paths of Industrialization in Latin America and East Asia, edited by G. Gereffi and D. L. Wyman, 90–109. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.


Gereffi, Gary, Ryan Denniston, and Mike Hensen. “North Carolina in the Global Economy: A Value Chain Perspective on the State’s Leading Industries.” Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management 5 (2007). Open Access Copy

Neidik, B., and G. Gereffi. “Explaining Turkey's emergence and sustained competitiveness as a full-package supplier of apparel.” Environment and Planning A 38, no. 12 (December 1, 2006): 2285–2303. Full Text

Wadhwa, Vivek, Ben A. Rissing, and G. Gereffi. “Industry Trends in Engineering Offshoring,” October 24, 2006.

Wadhwa, Vivek, and G. Gereffi. “Framing the Engineering Outsourcing Debate,” December 12, 2005.

Gereffi, G., J. Humphrey, and T. Sturgeon. “The governance of global value chains.” Review of International Political Economy 12, no. 1 (February 1, 2005): 78–104. Full Text

Gereffi, Gary, Glenn Morgan, Peer Hull Kristensen, and Richard Whitley. “The Multinational Firm: Organizing across Institutional and National Divides.” Contemporary Sociology 32, no. 6 (November 2003): 713–713. Full Text

Bair, Jennifer, and Gary Gereffi. “Upgrading, uneven development, and jobs in the North American apparel industry.” Global Networks 3, no. 2 (April 2003): 143–69. Full Text

Gereffi, G. “The international competitiveness of Asian economies in the apparel commodity chain.” Erd Working Paper Series, no. 5 (February 1, 2002): 1–34.

Gereffi, G. “Prospects for Industrial Upgrading by Developing Countries in the Global Apparel Commodity Chain.International Journal of Business and Society 3 (January 2002): 27–60.


Dubay, K., G. Ayee, and G. Gereffi. “Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters,” February 27, 2009.

Frederick, S., and G. Gereffi. “Value Chain Governance.” USAID Briefing Paper, 2009.

Wadhwa, V., U. K. De Vitton, and G. Gereffi. “How the Disciple Became the Guru: Workforce Development in India’s R&D Labs,” July 23, 2008.

Gereffi, G. “China’s Impact on North Carolina’s Major Industries.” Hearing on “China’s Impact on the North Carolina Economy: Winners and Losers.” Kenan Conference Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, September 6, 2007.

Wadhwa, Vivek, Guillermina Jasso, Ben A. Rissing, G. Gereffi, and Richard B. Freeman. “Intellectual Property, the Immigration Backlog, and a Reverse Brain-Drain: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part III,” August 22, 2007.

Wadhwa, V., B. Rissing, A. Saxenian, and G. Gereffi. “Education, Entrepreneurship, and Immigration: America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part II,” June 11, 2007.

Sturgeon, T., J. Van Biesebroeck, and G. Gereffi. “Prospects for Canada in the NAFTA Automotive Industry: A Global Value Chain Analysis,” March 14, 2007.

Wadhwa, Vivek, AnnaLee Saxenian, Ben A. Rissing, and G. Gereffi. “America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part I,” January 4, 2007.

Hutson, Monica Biradavolu, and Gary Gereffi. “Value Chain for the U.S. Cotton Industry,” March 4, 2005.