Gary Gereffi

Gary Gereffi

Professor Emeritus of Sociology

External address: 
264 Soc-Psych, Durham, NC 27708
Internal office address: 
Duke Box 90088, Durham, NC 27708-0088
(919) 660-5611


Gary Gereffi is Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Director of the Global Value Chains Center at Duke University (  He has published over a dozen books and numerous articles on globalization, industrial upgrading, and social and economic development, and he is one of the originators of the global value chains framework.  His most recent books are:  Handbook on Global Value Chains (co-edited by Stefano Ponte, Gary Gereffi and Gale Raj-Reichert), Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. 2019); and Global Value Chains and Development: Redefining the Contours of 21st Century Capitalism (Cambridge University Press, 2018).  Current projects include:  (1) the impact of U.S. protectionism on jobs and regional trade agreements; (2) evaluating how the digital economy and Industry 4.0 are likely to affect international business strategies and industrial upgrading; and (3) shifting regional interdependencies in East Asia and North America, with a focus on China, South Korea and Mexico vis-à-vis the United States.

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Yale University 1980

Fredrick, S., and G. Gereffi. “Protectionism in Textiles and Apparel.” In Effective Crisis Response and Openness: Implications for the Trading System, edited by S. J. Evenett, B. M. Hockman, and O. Cattaneo, 321–44. Washington, DC and London: The World Bank and the Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2009.

Gereffi, G., V. Wadhwa, and B. Rissing. “Enmarcando el debate sobre subcontratación de ingeniería: comparando calidad y cantidad de los ingenieros graduados en Estados Unidos, India y China.” In Globalización, Conocimiento y Desarrollo: La Nueva Economía Global Del Conocimiento – Estructura y Problemas, edited by A. D. Latrubesse and J. Vargas, 207–20. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.: Miguel Angel Porrua, 2009.

Appelbaum, R. P., G. Gereffi, R. Parker, and R. Ong. “De la mano de obra barata, al liderazgo en alta tecnología: ¿Será rentable la inversión china en nanotecnología?” In Globalización, Conocimiento y Desarrollo: Teoría y Estrategias de Desarrollo En El Contexto Del Cambio Histórico Mundial, edited by J. B. Kunhardt and M. A. R. Rios, 255–83. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,México, D.F.: Miguel Angel Porrua, 2009.

Gereffi, G. “Modelos de desarrollo y escalamiento industrial en China y México: el papel del comercio internacional y de la inversión extranjera directa.” In Oportunidades En La Relación Económica y Comercial Entre China y México, edited by Enrique Dussel Peters, 279–306. México, D.F.: CEPAL (Comisión Económica para América Latina), 2007.

Gereffi, G., and M. A. Martínez. “Mexico’s Economic Transformation Under NAFTA.” In Mexico’s Democracy at Work: Political and Economic Dynamics, edited by R. Crandall, G. Paz, and R. Roett, 119–50. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005.

Gereffi, G. “La economía global: organización, governance y desarrollo.” In Sistemas Locales En Las Redes Internacionales de Producción, edited by E. D. M. Y. S. Micelli, 47–103. Rome, Italy: Aracne, 2006, 2005.

Gereffi, G. “The Global Economy: Organization, Governance, and Development.” In The Handbook of Economic Sociology, edited by N. J. Smelser and R. Swedberg, 160–82. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press and Russell Sage Foundation, 2005.

Bair, J., and G. Gereffi. “Upgrading, uneven development, and jobs in the north american apparel industry.” In Labor and the Globalization of Production: Causes and Consequences of Industrial Upgrading, 58–87, 2004. Full Text

Gereffi, G., and O. Memodovic. “The Global Apparel Value Chain: What Prospects for Upgrading by Developing Countries?” In Globalization and Its Outcomes, edited by J. O. Loughlin, L. Staeheli, and E. Greenberg, 67–97. New York: Guilford Press, 2004.

Gereffi, Gary, and Olga Memodovic. “Original complete version: “The Global Apparel Value Chain: What Prospects for Upgrading by Developing Countries?”.” In United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Sectoral Studies Series, 2004.


Wadhwa, Vivek, Sonali Jain, AnnaLee Saxenian, G. Gereffi, and Huiyao Wang. “The Grass is Indeed Greener in India and China for Returnee Entrepreneurs: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs – Part VI,” April 8, 2011.

Gereffi, G. “Global Value Chains and International Competition.” Antitrust Bulletin 56, no. 1 (March 1, 2011): 37–56. Full Text Open Access Copy

Frederick, S., and G. Gereffi. “Upgrading and restructuring in the global apparel value chain: Why China and Asia are outperforming Mexico and Central America.” International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development 4, no. 1–3 (January 1, 2011): 67–95. Full Text Open Access Copy

Fernandez-Stark, K., P. Bamber, and G. Gereffi. “The offshore services value chain: Upgrading trajectories in developing countries.” International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development 4, no. 1–3 (January 1, 2011): 206–34. Full Text Open Access Copy

Staritz, Cornelia, Gary Gereffi, and Olivier Cattaneo. “Shifting End Markets and Upgrading Prospects in Global Value Chains (Special Issue of IJTLID).” Special Issue of International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development (Ijtlid) Vol. 4, Nos. 1/2/3 (January 2011).

Anderies, J. M., K. J. Dooley, Gary Gereffi, J. S. Golden, L. Pratson, and B. H. Thompson. “Sustainable product indexing: Navigating the challenge of ecolabeling,” October 29, 2010. Open Access Copy

Mayer, Frederick, and Gary Gereffi. “Regulation and Economic Globalization: Prospects and Limits of Private Governance.” Business and Politics 12, no. 03 (October 2010): 1–25. Open Access Copy

Jasso, G., V. Wadhwa, G. Gereffi, B. Rissing, and R. Freeman. “How many highly skilled foreign-born are waiting in line for U.S. legal permanent residence?International Migration Review 44, no. 2 (June 1, 2010): 477–98. Full Text Open Access Copy


Brun, L. C., J. Lee, and G. Gereffi. “Assessing Ocean Technology Value Chains: A Guide for the Canadian Trade Commissioner Service.” Canada: Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), April 2012.

Gereffi, G., L. C. Brun, J. Lee, and M. Turnipseed. “Nova Scotia’s Ocean Technologies: A Global Value Chain Analysis of Inshore & Extreme Climate Vehicles, Unmanned Underwater Vehicles, and Underwater Sensors & Instrumentation.” Nova Scotia: Department of Economic and Rural Development and Tourism (ERDT, March 5, 2012.

Lee, J., G. Gereffi, and S. Barrientos. “Global Value Chains, Upgrading and Poverty Reduction.” Capturing the Gains, Briefing Note 3, November 2011.

Lowe, M., S. Stokes, and G. Gereffi. “Restoring the Gulf Coast: New Markets for Established Firms.” Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), August 5, 2011.

Gereffi, G., and K. Fernandez-Stark. “Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer.” Background Document for World Bank Training Workshop on Global Value Chains in Astana, Kazakhstan., May 31, 2011.

Brun, Lukas C., and Gary Gereffi. “The Multiple Pathways to Industrial Energy Efficiency: A Systems and Value Chain Approach.” Report prepared for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), 2011.

Lowe, Marcy, Hua Fan, and Gary Gereffi. “U.S. Smart Grid: Finding New Ways to Cut Carbon and Create Jobs.” Report prepared for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), 2011.

Lowe, Marcy, Hua Fan, and Gary Gereffi. “Smart Grid: Core Firms in the Research Triangle Region, North Carolina.” Report for the Institute for Emerging Issues, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2011.

Gereffi, Gary, Tali Trigg, and Marcy Lowe. “Case Study: A123 Systems Local Markets and Competitiveness, A Value Chain Analysis,” October 2010.